Research - No Means No Worldwide
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Evidence That Classroom-Based Behavioral Interventions Reduce Pregnancy-Related School Dropout Among Nairobi Adolescents

Published in Health Education & Behavior

This study evaluates the effect of behavioral, empowerment-focused interventions on the incidence of pregnancy-related school dropout among girls in Nairobi’s informal settlements. Analysis reveals that pregnancy-related school dropout decreased significantly.

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Rape Prevention Through Empowerment of Adolescent Girls

Published in the Pediatrics Journal

This study evaluated an empowerment and self-defense training intervention for adolescent girls in the African context. This intervention proved highly effective at preventing sexual assault and should be replicable in other countries in sub-Saharan Africa and around the world.

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A Self-Defense Program Reduces the Incidence of Sexual Assault in Kenyan Adolescent Girls

Published in the Journal of Adolescent Health

A standardized 6-week empowerment defense program is effective in reducing the incidence of sexual assault in slum-dwelling high school girls in Nairobi, Kenya.
Abstract J Adolescence Health
Research outlined by Erin Digitale of Stanford School of Medicine


Published in the Journal of Interpersonal Violence

Your Moment Of Truth (YMOT) is an educational curriculum designed to raise awareness of social norms underlying gender-based violence (GBV). It perpetuates improved attitudes and behaviors amongst male high school students in urban slums of Nairobi. 1250 adolescent boys from five slums participated in six – 2 hour sessions designed to raise boys’ awareness of the social stereotypes that promote GBV in Kenya.

Attitudes towards girls and women improved significantly after the training and were sustained 1 year later. In addition, more than half of this group of boys successfully intervened to stop physical or sexual assault against a girl or woman in the year following the classes. ( This paper available in in June 2015)

Journal of Interpersonal Violence

Report on NMNW Questionnaire

Published By Nomeansnoworldwide

What strategies were being used to defend one’s self?
What were the attacks?

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Brief Compilation of Self-Defense Evidence

By Katy Mattingly 2012

A number of studies have found preliminary evidence that self-defense training may decrease a woman’s chances of experiencing future sexual victimization as compared to women without training.

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Women’s Self-Defense Programs In High-Conflict Areas

By Lynn Slaughter-Naves

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of violence against women as well as the current programs that exist to respond to it; particularly those programs that train women to defend themselves.

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Fighting back works: The case for advocating and teaching selfdefense against rape.

By Marge Heyden, Tiel Jackson, Billie Anger, and Todd Ellner

This article is designed to encourage educators to teach their students self-defense skills applicable to rape resistance. Sexual assault is a serious problem, particularly for the young, and forceful resistance can be effective in preventing rape. Self-defense training can also contribute to psychological health. We believe that educators can have a significant role in preventing sexual assault through promoting self-defense training.

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Evaluation outcomes of self-defense training for women: A review

By Leanne R. Brecklin, Department of Criminal Justice, University of Illinois

The main goal of women’s self-defense training is to strengthen women’s capacity to defend themselves against potential attacks. Yet, the effects of women’s self-defense training extend considerably beyond this objective, including physical, psychological, and behavioral impacts. Twenty quantitative studies that assess the effects of self-defense training on female participants are reviewed in this article. Read More

Mechanisms Governing Empowerment Effects: A Self-Efficacy Analysis

By Elizabeth M. Ozer and Albert Bandura, Stanford University

This experiment tested the hypotheses that perceived coping and cognitive control self-efficacy govern the effects of personal empowerment over physical threats. Women participated in a mastery modeling program in which they mastered the physical skills to defend themselves successfully against unarmed sexual assailants. Multifaceted measures of theoretically relevant variables were administered within a staggered intragroup control design to test the immediate and long-term effects of the empowerment program and the mechanisms through which it produced its effects.

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The Effects of Resistance Strategies on Rape

By Janice M. Zoucha-Jensen, MSW, and Ann Coyne,PhD

This investigation sought to clarify which resistance strategies were associated with rape avoidance at what cost. Although this analysis could not determine casualty, it did indicate that forceful verbal resistance and physical resistance were all associated with rape avoidance, whereas nonforceful verbal resistance and no resistance were all associated with being raped.

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The Roots of Resistance to Women’s Self-Defense

By Jocelyn A. Hollander, University of Oregon

Those who teach or research women’s self-defense often encounter significant resistance from others. In this article, the author discusses three major types of resistance to women’s self-defense (and to women’s resistance to violence more generally): the belief that women’s resistance is impossible, that it is too dangerous, and that it risks blaming the victim.

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Body Language and Assault Prevention: A Review of the Literature

By Brad Binder, Ph.D. © 1999, 2007 Used by permission from the author.

Please do not reprint or repost this article without first obtaining permission from the author.

It is a commonly held belief that training inSelf-Defense or a martial art leads to greater self-confidence and a reduced likelihood of being attacked.

Research in this area falls into two general categories:

    1. comparing the psychosocial profiles of survivors of assault to either nonassaulted subjects or survivors of an attempted assault; and
    2. analysis of non-verbal cues to isolate behaviors that are interpreted as conveying vulnerability to assault. This paper summarizes published data about body language as related to assault prevention.
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